Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Role of Clinical Psychologists in Valuing People What role should clinical psychologists play in implementing the recommendation of Ã¢â¬Å"Valuing PeopleÃ¢â¬ ? Clinical psychologists, in general, work in various settings diagnosing, through assessment and treating mental health disorders. In 2001 the Ã¢â¬ËValuing peopleÃ¢â¬â¢ project started as a governmental initiative and strategy with certain performance indicators in order to address the needs of people with learning disabilities by improving the quality of their lives and that of their families and carers. According to the (2001) white paper on valuing people, although it is difficult to provide accurate statistics on the number of people with learning disabilities in England, in 1999 it was estimated that about 210,000 people have Ã¢â¬Ësevere and profoundÃ¢â¬â¢ learning disabilities and 1.2 million people have Ã¢â¬Ëmild / moderateÃ¢â¬â¢ learning disabilities. Further, amongst the 210,000 people with severe and profound learning disabilities the majority (i.e. 120,000) is working age adults; 65,000 are youth and 25,000 are elderly people (available on: www.archive.officiald ocuments.co.uk/document/cm50/5086/5086.pdf). Clinical psychologists are mentioned in this white paper alongside other learning disability specialists engaged with the project towards improving the health of people with learning disabilities. This essay focuses on the roles of clinical psychologists in terms of acheiving the following project objectives: (1) disabled children and young people; (2) transition into adult life; (3) more choice and control; (4) supporting carers and (5) good health. These five objectives contribute to the overall aims of valuing people to protect the rights of those with learning difficulties as citizens, to ensure their full inclusion in their local communities, to expand the range of life-options available and to increase their independence. Children and people with severe learning disabilities might be unable to describe complicated internal feelings and a diagnosis can only be reached by behavioural observation and functional analysis, which the clinical psychologist can provide. In general there is a high rate of behavioural problems among people with a learning disability (Debb et al., 2001). Emerson (1995) postulates that between 30%-50% of people with a learning disability tend to demonstrate a variety of challenging behaviours. Nevertheless, challenging behaviour is not a formal psychiatric diagnosis, but rather a broad social construction (Emerson, 1998). It can, however, be taken as a sign of a mental illness Ã¢â¬â or it can mask i t. Clinical psychologists can assess challenging behaviours, understand their causes and then offer appropriate interventions (including the services of other health care specialists such as social workers) in order to eliminate them. In terms of the first objective about disabled people and young adults, clinical psychologists play a key role in identifying and accurately diagnosing their disability. A person with a learning disability is from early years likely to experience stressful and adverse life events that will create vulnerability for mental health problems (Bouras et al., 2000). That is so because in addition to cognitive problems and psychosocial stressors, genetic and biochemical factors tend to increase the probability for both challenging behaviour and mental illness (Bouras et al., 2000). The possible combination of these factors can make assessments and diagnosis extremely difficult. Correct diagnosis of disability is crucial for providing appropriate health and social care to the person with disability; while clinical psychologists work in a multi-disciplinary team of learning disability specialists who inform both the disabled person and their family about all support services available to them. Clinical psychologists are important in monitoring the progress that young people with disability make, when receiving health treatment alongside suitable family support services, in order to modify their treatment and the provision of support services to address any changes in their needs. This implies that clinical psychologists need to assess regularly the quality of health care these people receive and to ensure that disabled children and young people are getting appropriate health care in order that they are and feel included in education, family life and their local community. In the second objective of Ã¢â¬Ëtransition into adult lifeÃ¢â¬â¢ again clinical psychologists have a key role working in multidisciplinary teams of learning disability specialists (e.g. in settings such as the Connexions partnership) towards providing appropriate and continuous health and social care support to young people, who are becoming adults, and their families in order that adults with disability can be included in education, training, employment and their local community. Clinical psychologists can help young people with disability to understand their growth into adulthood and its psychological and practical implications. In this it is useful having consistency in attending the same person with disability from their youth into adulthood because then the disabled person will tend to trust more the clinical psychologist and his interventions. The development of young people with disability into adults is associated with the third objective of the valuing people project which is about providing more choice and control. Mental health problems can be a major factor in limiting not only quality of life but also successful community interaction and adaptation (Reiss, 1994). There is a general consensus regarding the prevalence of mental disorder in adults with a learning disability (Turner Moss, 1996). A review of relevant research revealed a prevalence range of mental disorder in adults with a learning disability from 14.3 % to 67.3 % (Campell Malone, 1991). Clinical psychologists with their person-centred approach have a valuable contribution to make in enriching the choices disabled people have through involving these people in the planning of suitable services for them and increasing public awareness of what these people can do and their rights in our society. In addition, clinical psychologists are significant contributors in the achievement of objectives (4) Ã¢â¬Ësupporting carersÃ¢â¬â¢ and (5) Ã¢â¬Ëgood healthÃ¢â¬â¢ because of their knowledge, skills and experience as health care specialists they can assess the needs of carers providing appropriate solutions to support them and their disabled people to access good health care services regardless of their ethnic background. Therefore, clinical psychologists should work to reduce health care inequalities and increase access for all carers and disabled people to health care. Moreover, clinical psychologists have to support and encourage the development of NHSÃ¢â¬â¢s services and provisions of specialist learning disability services that address holistically the needs of disabled people through the work of multi-disciplinary teams of disability specialists. To summarise, clinical psychologists can play several and important roles in implementing the recommendations of the valuing people project, especially in order to achieve its first five project objectives. Furthermore, in collaboration with other professionals in multidisciplinary teams of disability specialists clinical psychologists need to get involved in more proactive work. Having knowledge of human development, learning theories and aetiology of mental health illnesses clinical psychologist could play also an important role in preventive work on individual basis as well as in service development suitable for proactive adaptation and assimilation of people with disabilities in education, employment, their community and in the society. References: Campbell, M., Malone, R.P. (1991). Mental retardation and psychiatric disorders. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 42, 4. Department of Health. (2000). Valuing People: a new strategy for learning disability for the 21st century. (Retrieved 05/11/06 and it is available on www.archive.officialdocuments.co.uk/document/cm50/5086/5086.pdf>). Emerson, E., Moss, S. C. Kiernan, C. K. (2000). The relationship between challenging behaviour and psychiatric disorders in people with severe intellectual disabilities. In Psychiatric and Behavioural Disorders in Mental Retardation (ed. N. Bouras), 38-48. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Emerson, E. (1995). Challenging behaviour: analysis and intervention in people with learning disabilities. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Emerson, E. (1998). Clinical psychology and people with intellectual disabilities. London: Wiley Sons. Thomas, D. M. Bright, C. (2001). Mental disorder in adults with intellectual disability. The Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 25, Part 6, 506-514. Turner, S. Moss, S. (1996). The health needs of adults with learning disabilities and the Health of the Nation strategy. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 40,Ã 438-450.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Liberal Governments With what success did the Liberal Governments attempt to improve the quality of life of the working? The 1906 election, and subsequent landslide victory for the Liberals, was the first step toward the introduction of a welfare state. The Conservatives who were in power up to 1906 had basically ignored the concept of social reform; this had led to them losing the worker's vote and had also led to a decline in the standards of living for the working class. The New Liberals argued for more government intervention to help impoverished society and therefore created the first movements of a social reform. However, the new legislation was only a mediocre success in improving the quality of life for working class people. "New Liberalism", differing slightly to Gladstonian Liberalism, was essentially state intervention in order to reduce poverty and therefore improve living and working conditions for the working classes. Up until the turn of the century, it was believed that poverty was self-inflicted, and extremely easy to eradicate if the people concerned just tried a little harder. However by the 1906 election, studies on poverty had been completed by Booth and Rowntree, and ideas on the origins of poverty were beginning to change. These studies provided evidence to suggest that no matter how hard certain people tried, they could not lift themselves out of poverty, and needed assistance in the form of state benefits and legislations. As New Liberalism involved more government intervention, people were wary of it as it was a new concept, and the previous Conservative governments had been unconcerned with most aspects of helping the people. At this time people were scared of change, and many did not understand the benefits of schemes like the National Insurance Act of 1911, where there wasn't a guaranteed payoff and people did not understand why, or to whom, they were paying money. However, as the idea of "deserving" poor and "undeserving" poor still existed even with New Liberalism, not all groups of people received aid. Therefore the new legislation and reforms were not quite as successful as they could have been. This was partly because the Liberals were more concerned with their political status than increasing legislation for the good of the people. The Liberals were in fear of a potential threat from the newly-formed Labour Party, who relied on votes from the working-class population. The Liberals were also reliant upon the support of the Labour party in order to gain an absolute majority in parliament.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
20th Century Genius I selected Carl Jung at the beginning of this course because I had done some general research on a few of the people that were on the list, which was supplied in our course module. When I came to Carl Jung I found that he was born in Switzerland just north of Geneva. At the time I was living in Geneva, and I felt it would be interesting to do research on someone who was from Switzerland. What I leaned about Carl Jung was fascinating, although there is so much more to lean about this individual and also his area of genius. Many of the concepts certainly would take more advanced study and research. However, I believe he is a good candidate for 20th century genius and he deserves that distinction. Carl Jung, pronounced (Carl Young), is an intellectual genius and his field of genius is in the science of psychology. The science or field of psychology is truly left to those with intellectual prowess, however, from what I have learned about this man, is that he is not only a participant of this field, but he also has shaped and made significant contribution to this, the science of psychology. I believe it takes a genius no less to study psychology, but even more so to shape and lead in this field. Psychology is such a difficult, complex and advanced study because the human mind, emotions and human behavior is so very complex. The word, Ã¢â¬ ComplexÃ¢â¬ is interesting because it was Carl Jung who coined that term in a book he published titled, Ã¢â¬Å"Studies in word associationÃ¢â¬ , but more on that later. Psychologists have little more than their intellect as tools to rely on. What is interesting about Carl Jung is that part of his life falls along the fringe of our studies over the past five weeks. For example, he was born in Switzerland and his father was a protestant priest. We also learned that Switzerland is where Calvinism really took hold. These things, the birth of Protestant and Calvinism began as a result of the Reformation, which we learned earlier in our studies. Also, one of his theories about the unconscious falls on the fringe of our recent studies in art. So, to study Carl Jung I felt really tied in nicely with our study of Humanities. First, a little background on Carl Jung.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Tupac Shakur: A Hip-Hop Inspiration Music is a cultural journal that expresses the realities and emotions of life in a poetic way. For the African American culture, music has always been a statement for many controversial topics such as racism, religion, politics, education, crime, and violence. In the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s, Hip-Hop became the newest cultural and artistic voice for the African American population. Genres such as jazz, blues, rock-n-roll, and gospel that once dominated the musical culture of African Americans slipped into the background, and Hip-Hop rose to power and defined a generation.The inspirational and influential Tupac Shakur stormed onto the rap scene in 1991 with an emotional style that changed the rap game forever. TupacÃ¢â¬â¢s social consciousness morphed him into an activist and enabled him to influence American culture along with redefining the hip-hop genre. Tupac Shakur was born in New York City during the year 1971. His mother, Afeni Shakur, a member of the Black Panther Party. was in jail for bombing charges during her pregnancy. The origin of the name Tupac Amaru is Incan and translates to Ã¢â¬Å"shining serpent,Ã¢â¬ while Shakur is Arabic and means Ã¢â¬Å"thankful to God. In 1986, Shakur's family moved to Baltimore, Maryland, where Tupac enrolled in the Baltimore School for the Arts. At the age of 15, Tupac wrote his first rap song under the name of M. C. New York. The rapperÃ¢â¬â¢s life took a turn for the worse in 1988 when his family moved to a small city outside of Oakland, California. Shortly after moving to the projects, Tupac moved in with a neighbor and started to sell drugs. Later that year, Tupac's stepfather Mutulu Shakur was indicted and sentenced to 60 years in prison for his part in an armored car robbery that took place in 1981.Despite all of the trouble surrounding him and his family, Tupac joined the Grammy-nominated rap group Ã¢â¬ËDigital UndergroundÃ¢â¬â¢ as a dancer and rapper. After touring with the ac claimed group in 1990, Tupac released his first solo album in '91. He received immediate recognition for his debut album, 2pacalypse Now, which graced the world with the successful singles Ã¢â¬Å"TrappedÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Brenda's Got A Baby. Ã¢â¬ With the individual success that Tupac had received with his musical talent, he wanted to prove to the world that he was more than just a rapper. In 1992, Tupac appeared in the Earnest Dickerson film Ã¢â¬Å"Juice. Within the next two years, Tupac starred in two additional movies: the John Singleton movie, Ã¢â¬Å"Poetic JusticeÃ¢â¬ (Janet Jackson co-starred), and Ã¢â¬Å"Above The Rim. Ã¢â¬ Unfortunately, legal issues slowed the success of the influential rapper as a result of his 1994 arrest on sexual assault charges in New York. Subsequently, during the same month and in the same city, Tupac was shot in an apparent robbery attempt outside of his recording studio. Shortly after his quick recovery, Tupac was then acquitted of sodomy and weapons charges after he was convicted of sexually abusing a woman he had invited to his hotel room.Despite the absurd amount of legal problems, Shakur was back in the studio in early '95 and released the incredible album Me Against The World. The amount of devotion and emotion put into songs such as Ã¢â¬Å"Dear MamaÃ¢â¬ helped this record surpass 2 million copies sold. In February of the same year, Tupac was sentenced to 4 1/2 years in prison for sex abuse. After serving only eight months, Shakur was released on bail while he appealed the sentence. Still thriving on the success of Me Against The World, Tupac released his fourth solo album, All Eyez On Me, which topped the Ã¢â¬ËBillboard Album ChartÃ¢â¬â¢ shortly after it debuted.Songs such as Ã¢â¬Å"Life Goes OnÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"I AinÃ¢â¬â¢t Mad At ChaÃ¢â¬ once again demonstrate TupacÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to put every fiber of his being into each one of his songs. The game-changing album went on to sell five million co pies. On September 7, 1996, Tupac Amaru Shakur was knocked off the top of the world when he was shot in an apparent drive-by in Las Vegas. Five days later, Tupac was pronounced dead. The controversy surrounding the death of the greatest hip-hop artist of all time remains, to this day, a mystery.The death of Tupac Shakur may still be a mystery, however his influence on hip-hop music is undeniable. Tupac had a talent for exposing social and economical issues that forced society to face the reality that our nation was still far from perfect. He used his success and lyrics as a medium to speak to the world about important economical, political and social injustices. He quickly became a leader among the African American population, transforming into a voice for his nationality and a source of hope when there was nothing left for his people to believe in.Tupac was an inspiration to those suffering from poverty or feeling hopeless about the future; his accomplishments proved that even a ki d from the ghetto could rise above the hate and despair, achieve any goal, and make a difference in the world. The death of Tupac Shakur and his influence on hip-hop music is an invaluable part of not just African-American history, but world history. He may have been a criminal that had Ã¢â¬Ëthug life' tatooed on his body, but Tupac was a courageous person who not only stood up for what he believed in, but carved his views into the hip-hop genre for generations to come.ShakurÃ¢â¬â¢s life, legacy, and music career focused on activism so much that I see him as the Martin Luther King of hip-hop. As an avid reader, Shakur absorbed a wealth of knowledge and was eager to share it. Today, you hear a lot of rap and hip-hop music that has no real value. Sadly, most rap lyrics now are focused on material things, money and sex. The emotion in and deeper meaning of rap is dead. Though there are a few exceptions (Eminem), hip-hop for the most part has been swallowed by the genre the media is responsible for: pop.Music nowadays entails repetitive chorusÃ¢â¬â¢s and seems to be just noise. Great music is now a commodity that is hard to come by, especially in hip-hop, which is why I am so thankful for TupacÃ¢â¬â¢s music even though his career was cut short. In a very short time, Tupac managed to address profound social issues while preaching through his lyrics. Not only did Shakur influence the genre of hip-hop and the culture of many Americans, he became a worldwide symbol of change. Tupac Shakur is a martyr, who believed he could make a difference through music, and boy did he ever.I end this paper on the greatest hip-hop artist of all time with lyrics from the song Ã¢â¬Å"Changes: Come on, Come on, ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s just the way it is, Things will never be the same, ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s just the way it is, Aww Yeah. Ã¢â¬ Work Citied Hamilton, K. (2004). Making some noise: The academyÃ¢â¬â¢s hip-hop generation. Black Issues in Higher Education, 21 (5), 34-37. Krims, A. (20 00). New perspectives in music history and criticism: rap music and the poetics of identity. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. Smith, D. (1999). Tupac Shakur. In A. Light (Ed. ), The vibe history of hip-hop (p. 297-305). New York: Three Rivers Press.
Alan Mason Period 8 Martin Luther King v. Malcolm X Martin Luther King has been known for using peace to help him get equality among all people but especially African-Americans. He was not the type of leader that resorted to violence in order to get the equality that he fought for. King has been known for moving people by the use of his speeches like King's I Have a Dream and Vie Been to the Mountaintop speeches. King shows through these speeches that even though he was determined to get equal rights for every African-American, he as only going to stick to subtle, nonviolent ways like court cases, protest, and boycotts.This philosophy is the exact opposite to Malcolm X, another Civil Rights Leader, who thought that African American should not waste their time on protest and boycotts (Document 7). Malcolm, like King, was not in favor of violence but believe that African Americans should by all meaner use violence to protect themselves when they Ã¢â¬Å"attacked by racistsÃ¢â¬ (Docum ent 9). But, Martin Luther King's philosophy was more beneficial for the African-American community then Malcolm Ax's because the effort that he put Into his nonviolent philosophy made gaining rights more successful and more meaningful.Martin Luther King showed that he had the better philosophy compared to Malcolm X because of his stance on violence. One way King upheld his beliefs was through protest. King said In his Our God Is Marching speech, Ã¢â¬Å"We are on the move now. The burning of our churches will not deter us. We are on the move now. The bombing of our homes will not dissuade usÃ¢â¬ (Document 4). So Protesters, Including King himself were having their homes burned down for retesting for what they believe Is right. In March of 1965 King and other protesters walked In order to raise awareness of the need for a Voting Right Act. This Act was passed later that year.But even though they achieved their goal for voting right does not mean that the protesters did not receive opposition for their actions. Mass arrest, police attacks, and state troopers blockading all occurred throughout the walk. If King chose to fight back then that could have either delayed getting the Voting Right Act approved, or It may have been felt that African-Americans did not deserve to get the Act approved. But King Just showed by obtaining from violence you can still get what you want. Martin Luther King showed that there were other ways to fight for what you want aside form fighting Itself.King did this by using boycotts and strikes. He said, Ã¢â¬Å"There Is nothing quite so effective as refusal to cooperate economically with the forces and Institutions. Ã¢â¬ King realized that one of the ways he was going to get American to give them the rights that African-Americans wanted was by disrupting the flow of money that was going Into the Caucasian shops. This meaner by not buying from places that o not offer Jobs for African-Americans then those businesses would see how much they needed the African-American community, even If It meant having to hire African- American workers.Malcolm X did not agree with boycotts and strikes he said, Ã¢â¬Å"We have to learn how to own and operate the businesses of our community and develop to be involved in picketing and boycotting other people in other communities in order to get a JobÃ¢â¬ (Document 7). But this idea completely went against the philosophy of being together not separate. If this would have happened then the country would eave always been separate and things would have never been equal.Martin Luther king has been known for using his words instead of his fist when it comes to defending what he many thousands of others believed to be correct. King once said in his I Have a Dream speech that he had a dream that Ã¢â¬Å"former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhoodÃ¢â¬ ¦ They will not be Judged by the color of their skin but by their charac terÃ¢â¬ ¦ We will be able to work together, pray together, to struggle together, to go o Jail together, to climb up for freedom togetherÃ¢â¬ (Document 2).King fought for African Americans rights by using his words. He told the people of his desires for and equal and fair life where people could live in harmony with each other and not be judged by their skin tone. He thought of a time where there would be no more separate but equal as were stated prior, people would be able to Ã¢â¬Å"work togetherÃ¢â¬ ¦ And go to Jail together. Ã¢â¬ (Document 2) So by using his speeches where thousands of people came to listen to him talk, he moved a nation to be in favor of his reasoning's.In conclusion, Martin Luther Kings philosophy was more beneficial for the African- American community then Malcolm Ax's because the effort that he put into his nonviolent philosophy made gaining rights more successful and more meaningful. King kept up with his no violence idea by participating in other thi ngs that got America's attention like protest, boycotts and speeches. King strives to achieve equality and because of his hard efforts he has succeeded in more ways than one to help African-Americans get the same civil rights as Caucasian Americans.
Friday, August 16, 2019
Night Night narrates Ely Wiesel's test of faith and struggle for life through the horrors of the Holocaust. Twelve-year-old Elie and his family are packed into crowded cattle carts and shipped to the Auschwitz-Birkenau camps. This is where Elie survives tragic events that cause him to question God who could let such suffering occur. In the memoir Night, three events that lead to ElieÃ¢â¬â¢s victory over death and questioning of the existence of God are when Elie and all the Jews are separated into different carts, ElieÃ¢â¬â¢s struggles in the concentration camps and the final death march.ElieÃ¢â¬â¢s former teacher, Moshe the Beadle, comes to warn Elie and his family to not be tricked by the Germans, for they were taking control of trains and transporting them to death camps. ElieÃ¢â¬â¢s family doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t believe Moshe because his stories seemed exaggerated. Soon after, ElieÃ¢â¬â¢s family is forced to live in small ghettos in the center of the town. When the trains pulle d up, there was no turning back. Ã¢â¬Å"The Hungarian police made us climb into the cars eighty persons in each one. They handed us some bread and a few pails of waterÃ¢â¬ (Wiesel 22).Elie realizes he and his family are not going to safety. When the train wheels stopped, there was a wretched stench of corpse bodies. They were in Birkeneau. He was shortly separated from his mother and sisters. This momentous event will forever change his family. His faith is massacred, Ã¢â¬Å"Never shall I forget those moments that murdered my God and my soul and turned my dreams to ashesÃ¢â¬ (Weisel 34). Elie and his father go through many horrific obstacles in the concentration camps.One afternoon, Elie and his father are forced to watch a hanging of three condemned prisoners, two of which were grown men and the other an innocent child. The two men were no longer alive, but the childÃ¢â¬â¢s rope was still moving for he was to light and was still breathing. Elie questions himself, Ã¢â¬Å"How could I say to Him: Blessed be Thou, Almighty, Master of the Universe, who chose us among all nations to be tortured day and night, to watch our fathers, our mothers, our brothers end up in the furnacesÃ¢â¬ (Weisel 67).After watching thousands of Jews die each day, Elie loses his faith in God completely. Before the war is over, the Germans try to eliminate as many Jews as they can before the Americans invade and free the Jews. Elie has just gotten out of the infirmary because of his infected foot. Elie is about to give up at this point, but he sticks through and survives the death march. After the death march had finally come to a rest, ElieÃ¢â¬â¢s father becomes very sick with dysentery.After ElieÃ¢â¬â¢s father passes away, Elie is upset but is relieved. Elie is struck with food poisoning and spends weeks in the hospital, deathly ill. When he finally raises himself and looks in the mirrorÃ¢â¬âhe has not seen himself in a mirror since leaving SighetÃ¢â¬âhe is shocked: Ã¢â¬Å"From the depths of the mirror, a corpse gazed back at me. Ã¢â¬ Elie comes to realize, in the process of separating himself from the corpse, he has become, as a result of his time in the concentration camps, can coexist with faith, both in God and in man.In each of the three events described, Elie must face major traumatic life changes that force him to question his belief in God. Despite these terrible struggles, Elie does not allow himself to be consumed with revenge and evil. He maintains goodness in his spirit. Ellie says, Ã¢â¬Å"And even when we were no longer hungry, not one of us thought of revengeÃ¢â¬ (Wiesel 115). If God is good and Elie is still (good) inside despite his sufferings, then God must still exist.
Thursday, August 15, 2019
The objective of this paper is to determine the importance of the connection between the organizational culture and the information system which can be vital to achieve essential business goals. However the proper definition of information system (IS) is important, as different people create confusion in this respect, which according to Anderson (1992) it is the system which captures, records, and reorganize data then provides results which are useful for managerial purposes. On the other hand information technology IT is only the technological part of IS and the organizational culture is simply the way things are done in a firm. The interaction of these systems would result in huge advantages. Now it is that we have precisely viewed the explanation of IT, IS and organizational culture. We should now look at their interconnectedness. IT and organizational culture are incorporated in order to have statistical and meaningful information from the raw and unarranged data which is the information for decision making, however the feasibility of the implementation of such system is important in terms of technology and its cost. Once an idea or belief is accepted by a larger group it is said o be powerful and if it is accepted by a specific group then subcultures are said to exist and it is important to determine that which culture is dominant, and on the basis of this culture two opinions are created one which says that yes IT is important and the second which identifies IT as the fundamental basis of the IS, however it is also important that the new culture should be implemented or meant for a foreseeable future in the long-term and not in the short-term, as the short-term creates complexity quite earlier as compared to long-term approach, if there is some element of deviation of opinion. No matter what is the final decision is, the carrying out of the implementation process is important, currently in most firms there exists a Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢IT specialist cultureÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ which involves only the IT personnel in this process and obviously is not much effective. Therefore it is important that in the implementation of an IS, not only IT personnel should be involved but also the top management and the users of this IS should also be involved so that their requirements are catered in an efficient and effective way. Theoretical principles or basics Today the world is turned into a dynamic market place, where firms need to compete in terms of prices, efficiency and technology. For this purpose experts have realized the importance of information systems (IS) with information technology (IT) as its basis, combined together with the organizational culture. The perfect combination of these three important systems of a firm a firm is able to achieve a competitive status in the world market. Therefore it is important to have such elements in the firm in order to achieve businesses vital goals. For this purpose cultural change is to be incorporated, provided that it is the way things are done or the set of norms of the firm, therefore the bubble-like approach of incorporating cultural changes is said to be the most effective one. Under this idea of bubble-like cultural change, comes the idea of informatics and informational culture. The idea of IS is also important, however majority of people confuse it with IT however the correct expl anation are the one discussed earlier. The implementation of ISÃ¢â¬â¢s in most of the firms has resulted into various advantaged to the firms; briefly it enables the management to acquire meaningful information from the raw data and later to help decision making. But the successful implmetation and usage of the IS requires three important components which are: 1, the data or information, the people (implementers and users) and the material resources. Here the data can be any data form example businesses truncations or employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s records, and the material resources are the mechanical supportive equipment for example office furniture and computers etc and lastly the people are the user and the implementers of the IS. Now with people here comes the notion of organizational culture, the culture in accordance with the IS and IT plays an important role if these three things are in line or are in agreement then vital advantages can be observed which are discussed as follows: Ã · As it decreases the anxiety and confusion created by the IT/IS, it supports the adaptation of the environmental changes, therefore it contributes positively to the overall satisfaction level of the internal staff who have been involved in its implementation. Ã · Ã Enables the management to know if the implantation id accepted by the users. Ã · Ã Social relations are created when the implementers and users of different departments meet to implement the system. This adds to the motivation level of the employees. Ã · Tells the users that which information will be available at what location in what time. Ã · Ã Determines the effectiveness of the IT/IS associated to the means of communication, as both inside and outside, it is a vital way correspondence. Ã · Ã As it explains that what are the norms and practices of the entity, a feeling of strong unity is created. Interconnectedness of IT, IS and Organizational Culture An IS is created so that meaningful information can be derived out of the raw data, therefore it is that an IS is responsible for converting data into information and therefore quantity and quality of the information is important. However the relationship between data, culture and information system is important. Only an effective IS can be developed when there is perfect correlation between these three. And then only information which is meaningful can be obtained and used for managerial purposes. We have discussed that appropriate people in appropriated places is important, another point about the feasibility in terms of technology and finance. If there are no sufficient financial and technological assistance and resources then the application of the IS may not be successful, for example if due to lack of finance some important features of the IS are excluded from the plan then it wonÃ¢â¬â¢t produce accurate and meaningful results. Another way in which the relationship of IT and organizational can be reviewed can be provided with two questions that whether it is the IT which creates the lines of an organizational culture or whether it is the organizational culture that decides that whether IT solutions should be incorporated or not; answers to these can be this if there is strong feeling among the users of the IS and other supporting staff that the use of IT has resulted into the benefits of some particular group, department or a person then incorporation of computerized solution will form as the firms norms or in other words culture because majority thinks that yes IT is important. However it is also possible that opposite can happen, which can be further elaborated in a way that there have been opposite behaviors in respect of the discussion between the service and manufacturing sector. This is because in manufacturing businesses there is more of manual labor work and computerization and IT is incorporated to a lesser extent thus a culture in manufacturing would be less compatible to the IT, whilst in the service sector more of IT solutions are required and computerization is involved to a larger extent therefore there is strong evidence of the fact that information technology can set the valueÃ¢â¬â¢s and norms of the firm. Now there is a question that which approach is the best? This is difficult question to answer because the two have enormous effects on each other, but in light of modern business techniques IT/IS solutions have been more effective on the cultural practices, this is because an IS not only automates the flow of data but also provides manage ment with alternatives ways of doing things in respect of efficiency, accuracy, and timeliness. Specific Relationship of Information System and the Organizational Culture It is possible that there exists a conflict between the norms or cultural practices of two groups in an entity. Therefore, it is in vital interest of the firms that these differences are rectified, because when there is one common way of doing things efficiency and timeliness are prone to occur along with economies of scale ( reaching a position when per unit cost is lowest). More specifically these divergences can be that a larger group supports one view and a smaller group supports the contrary this is known as the subculture. Distinction between these two opinions is necessary so that there might be an informatics or an in informational culture. Where informatics is that for example usage of IT is important, and the informational culture is with more detail where it says in order to make correct and accurate decisions IT should be incorporated as the basis of an IS. The first culture is easy to understand but the second one goes into more detail, it also includes in it the first culture and also the organizational behavior and the information data. It however necessary that in order to have a successful transformation of IT into an IS, conversion of informatics culture into the in informational culture is necessary. Informational and Informatics Culture; Features It is now that we have come to know that what are the two cultures now we must discuss that which one is to be transformed into the other through administrative intervention. When we talk about the informatics culture the case is that it only considers the costs of the IT department only in the short term, therefore it ignores the long-term research and development process which can result into the firms inters this is why it is a usual case that firms end up in spending more and earning less from IT centers as proper consideration are not taken when purchasing its equipment and employing staff. However on the contrary the informational culture approach considers the outputs of an IT center to a larger extent; it not only considers the quantitative aspects of the IT solution but also the long-term usefulness to the firms in respects of tactical and strategic planning, it not only sees the IT solution in terms of an IS as cost, but also highlights it advantages and long-term benefits in terms if research and development and therefore upon this approach distributes its cost over its useful life.